Feasts of Israel and their Prophetic Significance

By Phillip G. Kayser · 12/22/2002

Feast Key passages Emphasis Fulfilled
Dedication Num. 7-8; Lev. 8-9; Ex. 40; Zech 7-8; Hag 2:10- 23; John 10:22) Jesus Incarnate Festivals connected to the temple December 25, 5BC
The Seven Mandated Feasts of Leviticus 23 Passover Ex. 12:1-14; Lev. 23:5; Num. 9:1-14; 28:16; Deut. 16:1-7 Jesus redeems 30AD
Unleavened Bread Ex. 12:15-20; 13:3-10; Lev. 23:6-8; Num. 28:17- 25; Deut. 16:3,4,8
Firstfruits Lev. 23:9-14; Num. 28:26
Pentecost Ex. 23:16; 34:22; Lev. 23:15-21; Num. 28:26-31; Deut. 16:9-12 Jesus Equips
Trumpets Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 29:1-6; Joel 2:1-17 Jesus warns the Jew, calls the Gentile 70AD
Yom Kippur (Fast Day. Day of Atonement for nation. Purifying of Holy of Holies. God's acceptance or rejection of nation) Lev. 16; 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11 Jesus judges the Jew, purifies the Gentile
Tabernacles (harvest feast with 70 bulls slain for 70 Gentile nations) Ex. 23:16; 34:22; Lev. 23:33-36, 39-43; Num. 29:12-38; Deut. 16:13-15 Jesus scatters the Jew, gathers the Gentile 70AD to present
Purim Esther 9 Jesus wins No temple Future

The feasts applied

Feast What Christ did Applied to Israel Fulfilled
Dedication This festival looked back to the dedication of the temple and forward to the birth of Jesus. Israel’s New Temple is established to replace the old temple (John 2:18-22) December 25, 5BC
Passover Jesus dies on Passover day. Sin is paid for. His death makes judgment “pass over” His people Jesus makes a new Israel out of a remnant of the Old Israel. (cf. 12 apostles & 12 tribes in Luke 22:29-30) 30AD
Unleavened Bread Christ was in the grave because of our sins, and buried our sins. The New Israel’s sins are buried and remembered no more (Jer. 31:31-34)
Firstfruits Victory over death earned and a “firstfruits” from the dead harvested. Resurrection of Old Testament saints as a “firstfruits” to join the kingdom (Matt. 27:53; Hosea 6:2)
Pentecost Spirit’s power dependant on Jesus being both crucified (Gal. 3:13-14) and glorified (John 7:39). Unites Jew & Gentile Holy Spirit poured out upon new Israel (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2). No longer will there be a dividing wall between Jew and Gentile.
Trumpets Christ warns of judgment on that generation if they do not repent. Christ gives further warnings in the trumpet section of Revelation. Trumpets call to G. Casting away of national Israel & beginning of “the times of the Gentiles” (Luke 21:24) on Tishri 1, A.D. 66. (Heb. 12:18-29; Rev. 8-10) 70AD
Yom Kippur Christ anointed the Holy of Holies with His own blood, and called Israel to repentance and to the one true sanctuary. A call to “afflict your souls” (N. 29:7) and to go outside the camp with Christ and seek a heavenly city (cf. Heb. 13:10-14). The old Holy of Holies is destroyed in 70 A.D. to make visible that there is only one place of atonement. Yom Kippur was for sins of ignorance (Heb. 9:7) but brought judgment on willful rebellion (Heb. 10:26-31), therefore Christ’s death was judged upon that generation. Levitical system removed.
Tabernacles While Israel becomes homeless (booths rep. Wandering), Jesus welcomes Gentiles into His house. Zech 14:16-20 ties the present period of world evangelization together with the Feast of Tabernacles. The Great Gentile Harvest begins in 70 AD. “hardening in part has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.” (Rom. 11:25) “their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles” (Rom. 11:12). This is the time of the conversion of the “70 nations,” but also a time when only a “remnant” of the Jews is saved. 70AD to present
Purim Though He “cast away” national Israel - 70 AD (Rom 11), He will again save them (Rom. 11:26), and apply the New Covenant to them (Jer31:31-40). The Great Commission will be fulfilled. Salvation of Israel brings even greater blessings to the Gentiles (Rom. 11:12). The day of fasting (Adar 13) points to Jewish repentance, and the two days of feasting (14-15) to their salvation & blessing. All enemies subdued to Jesus Future

Timing of the feasts

Feast Sacred calendar Civil calendar Date
Dedication 9th month 3rd month Chislev 25
Passover 1st month 7th month Abib (Nisan) 14
Unleavened Bread Abib 15-21
Firstfruits Abib 16
Pentecost 3rd month 9th month Sivan 6
Trumpets 7th month 1st month Tishri 1
Yom Kippur Tishri 10
Tabernacles Tishri 15-22
Purim 12th month 6th month Adar 13-15